Wheat, durum

Grains of durum wheat (Triticum durum L., also known as Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). Durum wheat is normally used for the production of pasta and semolina.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.8 100 % - 1.3 79.1 -90.5 184 2.1
Crude protein 14.4 16.4 % - 1.4 10.2 -19.5 156 1.6 11.8 -21.5 176
Crude fibre 2.7 3 % - 0.5 2.1 -4.1 52 0.5 2.4 -4.6 52
Crude fat 1.8 2 % - 0.3 1.2 -2.8 35 0.3 1.3 -3.2 35
Ash 1.9 2.1 % - 0.3 1.4 -2.8 44 0.4 1.6 -3.2 68
Insoluble ash 0.04 0.05 % -
NDF 13.9 15.9 % -
ADF 3.6 4.2 % - 0.5 3.1 -4.3 5
Lignin 1.1 1.3 % - 0.6 -1.2 4 0.7 -1.4 4
Water insoluble cell walls 10.2 11.7 % - 10.1 -12.7 3
Starch 55.8 63.6 % - 3 48.1 -62.4 124 3.3 56.3 -70.1 118
Starch, enzymatic method 60.6 69 % - 67.7 -70.3 2
Total sugars 2.8 3.2 % - 0.9 1.4 -3.8 12 1 1.7 -4.3 11
Gross energy (kcal) 3880 4420 kcal/kg - 1
Gross energy (MJ) 16.2 18.5 MJ/kg - 1
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.5 0.3 -1.6 15 0.5 0.3 -1.8 15
Phosphorus 3.4 3.9 g/kg - 0.5 3 -4.6 23 0.6 3.3 -5.3 23
Phytate phosphorus 2.2 2.5 g/kg 65 % P 11 32-98 114
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg -
Potassium 4.3 4.9 g/kg -
Sodium 0.1 0.11 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 3 4 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 92 105 mEq/kg -
Manganese 31 35 mg/kg -
Zinc 27 30 mg/kg -
Copper 5 5 mg/kg -
Iron 49 56 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.4 2.7 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 2 2.3 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 7.5 8.6 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 1.3 1.5 % 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin K 0.02 0.02 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 1.6 mL/g 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.06 1.2 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.07 1.22 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 32 36 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 84 96 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 14 16 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.129 0.147 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2770 3160 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1860 2120 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1890 2150 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.7 8.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.8 8.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 86.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 84.6 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 76 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 90 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 77 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.07 1.22 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.09 1.24 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 27 30 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 81 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 17 19 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.02 1.16 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.03 1.17 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 39 44 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 90 102 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 9 10 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.04 1.18 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.03 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.04 1.18 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.03 1.17 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 35 40 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 96 109 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 97 111 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2760 3150 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.6 13.2 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86 %
N digestibility ruminants - 73.2 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 27 % 10-33 4
Potentially degradable N (b) - 67 % 57-90 4
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.16 h-1 0.05-0.187 4
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 94 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 58 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 42 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.39 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 80 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 52 % 21 11-66 5
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 42 % 22 29-84 5
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.12 h-1 0.034 0.04-0.125 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 65.5 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.5 2.8 g/kg 73 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.4 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.3 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1036 1180 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1137 1295 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 91 103 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 5 6 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5 5.7 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.8 2.1 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 74 84.3 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.3 3.76 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.71 1.95 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.61 1.84 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.84 2.1 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.26 1.43 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 27 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.3 8.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 155 176 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -2 -2 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3330 3790 kcal/kg - 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 3210 3660 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2470 2810 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3400 3870 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3260 3720 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2510 2850 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.9 15.9 MJ/kg - 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.4 15.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.3 11.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.2 16.2 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.7 15.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.5 11.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 85.7 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 87.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 88.2 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 89.8 %
N digestibility growing pig - 82.5 %
N digestibility adult pig - 85.5 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 31.9 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1 1.2 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.5 1.7 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2980 3390 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2880 3280 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 12.5 14.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.1 13.7 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 2 2.2 g/kg 58 % P
Available P broiler 2 2.2 g/kg 58 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 87.4 %
Energy digestibility horse - 84 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.05 1.2 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 102 117 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3190 3630 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3040 3470 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.3 15.2 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.7 14.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 82.1 %
N digestibility rabbit - 76.7 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 3110 3540 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 13 14.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 80 %
N digestibility salmonids - 83.3 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 4.3 -4.6 2
Threonine 4.3 4.8 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine 2.3 2.6 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N
Cystine 3.1 3.6 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 5.4 6.2 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Tryptophan 1.6 1.8 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N
Isoleucine 5.2 5.9 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Valine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Leucine 9.8 11.1 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine 7 8 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 4.6 5.2 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 11.6 13.2 g/kg 8.1 g/16g N
Histidine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Arginine 6.9 7.9 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 5 5.6 g/kg 3.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Aspartic acid 7.2 8.2 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glutamic acid 44.5 50.7 g/kg 30.9 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glycine 5.7 6.5 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 7.2 8.2 g/kg 5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 15.2 17.3 g/kg 10.5 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.5 g/kg 81 % 4 71-89 21
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 83 % 5 69-91 23
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 89 % 2 83-92 17
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.2 g/kg 91 % 2 85-93 17
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.5 g/kg 90 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 88 % 3 83-92 12
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.3 g/kg 89 % 3 81-91 22
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 86 % 4 75-92 21
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 10 g/kg 90 % 2 82-92 21
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 7.3 g/kg 91 % 2 88-93 17
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.7 g/kg 90 % 2 86-93 17
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 10.5 12 g/kg 91 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 90 % 2 85-92 16
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 7 g/kg 88 % 3 81-94 21
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 80 % 4 75-90 22
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.8 g/kg 83 % 4 72-87 20
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 42.5 48.4 g/kg 95 % 1 91-97 22
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.6 g/kg 86 % 4 76-90 16
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 6.5 7.3 g/kg 89 % 3 80-93 22
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 14.5 16.5 g/kg 95 % 1 94-96 5
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 82 % 3 77-84 6
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 82 % 5 74-85 6
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 89 % 6 78-92 6
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3 g/kg 85 % 4 80-92 6
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.3 g/kg 87 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.6 g/kg 87 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.3 g/kg 89 % 5 77-91 6
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.1 g/kg 87 % 2 82-88 6
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.9 g/kg 89 % 2 87-91 6
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 7.2 g/kg 90 % 5 86-99 6
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 85 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.2 11.6 g/kg 88 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3.1 g/kg 83 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 83 % 2 79-85 6
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.6 g/kg 82 % 4 74-84 5
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.7 g/kg 82 % 9 62-84 5
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 42.3 48.2 g/kg 95 % 1 93-97 5
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.5 g/kg 84 % 2 79-84 5
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.4 7.2 g/kg 88 % 4 80-89 6
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 14.3 16.3 g/kg 94 % 93-96 4
CSVXLSXXML