Sorghum

Sorghum grain (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The nutritional values for monogastric animals correspond to low-tannin varieties.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.8 100 % - 2.7 79.1 -96.5 710 4.4
Crude protein 9.3 10.6 % - 0.9 6.5 -13.8 909 1 7.2 -15.1 726
Crude fibre 2.4 2.8 % - 0.5 1.4 -5.9 185 0.6 1.6 -6.6 142
Crude fat 2.9 3.3 % - 0.4 1.9 -4.4 208 0.4 2.5 -5 149
Ash 1.9 2.1 % - 0.7 0.7 -4.1 316 0.8 0.8 -4.5 318
Insoluble ash 0.3 0.3 % - 0.3 0 -1.3 70 0.4 0 -1.5 71
NDF 9.8 11.1 % - 1.9 5.8 -14 70 2.2 6.6 -16.3 95
ADF 3.8 4.3 % - 1 2.2 -6.2 70 1.1 2.5 -7.1 90
Lignin 1 1.1 % - 0.6 0.2 -2.3 90 0.7 0.2 -3.5 110
Water insoluble cell walls 7.5 8.5 % - 1.1 4.4 -9.1 74 1.3 5.2 -11.6 58
Starch 64.6 73.6 % - 2.5 56.6 -68.7 511 1.7 63.6 -80.9 335
Starch, enzymatic method 56.2 64 % - 6.1 55 -65.3 4 6.6 53.2 -76.1 14
Total sugars 1.1 1.3 % - 0.6 0.06 -2.9 88 0.6 0.07 -3 92
Gross energy (kcal) 3930 4480 kcal/kg - 140 3740 -4230 42 80 4290 -4680 68
Gross energy (MJ) 16.5 18.7 MJ/kg - 0.6 15.7 -17.7 42 0.3 17.9 -19.6 68
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.2 0 -1.2 165 0.3 0 -1.4 172
Phosphorus 3 3.5 g/kg - 0.5 1.6 -4.9 254 0.6 1.8 -5.3 248
Phytate phosphorus 2.1 2.4 g/kg 70 % P 52-86 3
Magnesium 1.5 1.7 g/kg - 0.4 0.9 -2.5 71 0.4 1 -2.9 79
Potassium 3.6 4.1 g/kg - 0.6 2.2 -5.3 77 0.7 2.4 -5.9 81
Sodium 0.16 0.18 g/kg - 0.14 0 -0.45 37 0.16 0 -0.53 41
Chlorine 0.6 0.6 g/kg - 0.2 0.3 -1.1 20 0.2 0.3 -1.2 17
Sulfur 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.06 -1.3 4
Dietary cation-anion difference 30 34 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 84 96 mEq/kg -
Manganese 13 15 mg/kg - 12 0.1 -55 14 13 0.1 -61 22
Zinc 21 24 mg/kg - 9 4 -37 16 11 5 -52 25
Copper 5 6 mg/kg - 4 3 -14 16 4 3 -17 24
Iron 87 100 mg/kg - 108 20 -219 12 123 23 -497 16
Selenium 0.4 0.5 mg/kg - 0.4 -0.4 3 0.5 -0.5 3
Cobalt 0.2 0.3 mg/kg - 0.2 0.04 -0.4 7 0.2 0.05 -0.5 8
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg - 0.6 0.4 -2 5 0.6 0.5 -2 5
Iodine 0.02 0.02 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.03 % FA 1
C14:0 myristic acid 0.01 0.02 g/kg 0.05 % FA 0.09 0-0.2 5
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.8 4.3 g/kg 14.3 % FA 2.8 11.6-20.2 18
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.1 -0.4 3 0.1 -0.5 3 0.4 0-1.5 18
C18:0 stearic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.7 % FA 0.8 0-3 18
C18:1 oleic acid 10 11.4 g/kg 38.2 % FA 8.9 -11.5 3 10.3 -13.2 3 5.2 28.1-49 18
C18:2 linoleic acid 11.1 12.6 g/kg 42.2 % FA 10.4 -12.2 3 11.9 -14.1 3 6.1 27.6-50.7 18
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.5 0.5 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.4 -0.8 3 0.5 -0.9 3 1.3 0-5 18
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.07 % FA 0.08 0-0.2 6
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.1 -0.4 3 0.2 -0.5 3 0.4 0.2-1.5 7
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0 -0.1 3 0 -0.2 3 0-0.5 4
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 3 0 -0 3 0-0 3
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0 -0.1 3 0 -0.2 3 0-0.5 4
Fatty acids 2.6 3 % 90 % fat 1 1 1
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.1 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 10.2 11.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3.6 4.1 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.3 1.5 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4.6 5.3 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 37.7 43 mg/kg - 1 1
Pantothenic acid 11.8 13.5 mg/kg - 1 1
Folic acid 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 636 725 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 0.3 mL/g
Phytase activity 30 30 IU/kg - 20 -30 3
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.06 1.21 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.08 1.23 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 42 47 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 86 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -42 -47 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.225 0.256 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2790 3180 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1870 2130 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1900 2160 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.8 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.9 9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 83.1 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 43 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 62 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 66 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 10.9 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.3 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.08 1.23 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.1 1.25 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 38 43 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 85 96 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -41 -47 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.03 1.17 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.03 1.17 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 46 53 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 88 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -44 -50 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.19 per kg - 1.04 -1.21 4
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.19 per kg - 1.09 -1.25 4
UFV INRA 2007 1.05 1.19 per kg - 1.01 -1.21 4
UFV INRA 2007 1.05 1.19 per kg - 1.07 -1.27 4
PDIA INRA 2007 49 55 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 66 76 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 86 97 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2790 3170 kcal/kg - 310 330 2490 -3540 8
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg - 293
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg - 1.3 1.4 10.4 -14.8 8
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.1 % 6.8 72.1-91.8 9
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.5 % 6.7 69.4-89.2 8
N digestibility ruminants - 67.4 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 78 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 40 % 37-46 4
Immediately degradable N (a) - 5 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 73 % 10-80 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.055 h-1 0.026-0.27 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 61 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 28 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 72 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 % 63-68 3
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 36 % 21-46 3
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 59 % 49-67 3
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.038-0.068 3
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.3 2.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.5 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1044 1189 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1145 1304 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 82 93 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -35 -40 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.1 4.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.8 2.1 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 76.7 87.3 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.34 3.8 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.73 1.97 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.64 1.87 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.87 2.13 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.28 1.46 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 57 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 64 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.4 8.4 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 149 170 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -9 -10 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3430 3900 kcal/kg - 160 3290 -3580 7 130 3610 -4010 9
ME growing pig (kcal) 3340 3800 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2640 3000 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3490 3970 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3390 3860 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2670 3040 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.3 16.3 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 14 15.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 11 12.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.6 16.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.2 16.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 87.2 % 2.1 86-91.9 7
Energy digestibility adult pig - 88.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 89.8 % 89-91 4
OM digestibility adult pig - 91.3 %
N digestibility growing pig - 74.8 % 5.4 69-86.4 8
N digestibility adult pig - 78.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 79 % 7 64.2-89 14
Crude fat digestibility pig - 54.2 % 50-62 4
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.8 0.9 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.1 1.3 g/kg 38 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3310 3770 kcal/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3250 3700 kcal/kg - 190 2770 -3480 6 180 3200 -3760 7
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.9 15.8 MJ/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 13.6 15.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.7 0.8 g/kg 23 % P
Available P broiler 0.7 0.8 g/kg 23 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 89.7 %
Energy digestibility horse - 86.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.13 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 66 75 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3180 3620 kcal/kg - 3050 -3500 2 3490 -3750 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 3090 3510 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.3 15.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.9 14.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 80.9 % 77.9-86.9 2
N digestibility rabbit - 71.3 % 54.6-72.1 3
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2020 2310 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 8.5 9.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 51.5 %
N digestibility salmonids - 80 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.2 2.5 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.4 1.4 -3.5 74 0.4 1.6 -3.9 104 0.4 1.4-3.2 107
Threonine 3.1 3.5 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.5 2.3 -4.4 57 0.6 2.6 -5.3 86 0.3 2.5-4.2 89
Methionine 1.5 1.8 g/kg 1.6 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.3 64 0.4 1.2 -3 77 0.3 1.1-2.2 80
Cystine 1.8 2 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.3 1.2 -2.8 40 0.4 1.4 -3.1 53 0.3 1.3-2.6 56
Methionine + cystine 3.3 3.8 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.6 1.9 -5.1 41 0.7 2.2 -6 53 0.5 2.6-4.8 56
Tryptophan 1 1.1 g/kg 1 g/16g N 0.2 0.6 -1.3 31 0.2 0.7 -1.7 42 0.1 0.6-1.2 44
Isoleucine 3.9 4.5 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.7 2.7 -5.4 53 0.8 3 -7.3 83 0.4 3.1-4.9 87
Valine 5.1 5.8 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 0.9 3.4 -6.5 51 1 3.8 -8.8 81 0.5 3.8-6.2 85
Leucine 12.7 14.4 g/kg 13.6 g/16g N 2.3 8.6 -17 54 2.6 9.9 -23.6 84 1.2 10.1-15.8 88
Phenylalanine 5 5.7 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 0.9 3.4 -6.7 51 1 3.8 -9.1 81 0.5 4-6.3 85
Tyrosine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.8 1.9 -5.4 40 0.9 2.1 -6.7 69 0.7 2.1-4.9 73
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.8 10 g/kg 9.4 g/16g N 1.6 5.3 -12.1 40 1.8 5.9 -15.8 68 1.1 6.1-10.9 72
Histidine 2.1 2.4 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.5 -3.1 49 0.4 1.7 -3.7 78 0.2 1.5-2.9 82
Arginine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.6 2.5 -5.1 53 0.7 2.8 -6.2 80 0.5 2.7-5.2 84
Alanine 8.6 9.8 g/kg 9.2 g/16g N 1.6 6.1 -11.9 48 1.8 6.8 -16.3 75 0.8 7-10.9 78
Aspartic acid 1.8 2.1 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 19.5 22.2 g/kg 20.9 g/16g N 3.6 14.4 -26.3 46 4.1 16.2 -37.6 73 1.7 16.4-24.8 76
Glycine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 2.1 -4.1 50 0.5 2.3 -5 78 0.4 2.2-4 82
Serine 4.3 4.9 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 0.7 3.4 -6.7 48 0.8 3.9 -7.8 76 0.4 3.4-5.8 79
Proline 8 9.1 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N 1.5 4.9 -9.8 22 1.7 5.5 -14.1 50 0.9 5.5-9.9 53
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 74 % 0.2 1.5 -2 4 0.3 1.7 -2.4 5 10 53-88 15
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 76 % 0.6 2.2 -3.4 4 0.7 2.5 -4 5 9 59-91 15
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.5 g/kg 85 % 0.3 1.1 -1.8 4 0.4 1.3 -2.2 5 6 72-92 14
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 77 % 1.1 -2 3 1.3 -2.3 4 10 58-89 12
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 81 % 2.5 -3.5 3 2.9 -4.1 3 8 65-90 11
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 79 % 8 61-84 8
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 83 % 0.8 2.5 -4.6 4 0.9 2.8 -5.4 5 5 74-91 15
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.7 g/kg 81 % 0.7 4 -5.7 4 0.8 4.6 -6.8 5 6 71-94 15
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 10.9 12.4 g/kg 86 % 2.4 8.7 -14.9 4 2.8 9.9 -17.6 5 5 77-93 15
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.8 g/kg 85 % 0.8 3.5 -5.3 4 0.9 4 -6.3 5 4 77-91 14
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 85 % 0.8 2.5 -4.3 4 0.9 2.8 -5.1 5 6 73-92 14
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.5 8.5 g/kg 85 % 5 75-91 11
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 78 % 0.2 1.5 -1.8 4 0.2 1.7 -2.3 5 8 58-85 14
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.5 g/kg 82 % 0.5 2.4 -3.6 4 0.5 2.9 -4.2 5 9 62-94 15
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 7 7.9 g/kg 81 % 1.5 6 -9.8 4 1.7 6.9 -11.6 5 5 72-93 15
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 82 % 7 69-92 15
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 16.8 19.1 g/kg 86 % 4.6 12.3 -23.9 4 5.2 14 -28.4 5 5 76-92 15
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 66 % 1 -3 3 1.2 -3.5 4 16 34-82 13
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 81 % 0.7 2.9 -4.8 4 0.8 3.3 -5.7 5 7 69-92 15
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.5 g/kg 50 % 4.3 0.7 -8.3 4 5 0.8 -12.8 5 27 9-84 9
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 88 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.9 g/kg 83 % 75-83 2
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.4 1.5 g/kg 88 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 90 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 89 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 82 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 90 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 87 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.3 12.8 g/kg 89 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 89 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 84 % 78-84 2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.7 g/kg 87 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 79 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 87 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.7 g/kg 89 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 88 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 17.3 19.8 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.8 g/kg 83 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 88 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.3 g/kg 92 %
Origin USA, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.34 4.94 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.62 5.26 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 479 546 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0094 0.0107 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 39.44 44.92 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0004 0.0004 m²yr/kg -
Origin USA, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 6.55 7.46 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 5.04 5.74 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 678 772 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0112 0.0128 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 44.73 50.94 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0005 0.0005 m²yr/kg -
Origin USA, ex port of delivery (Brest, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 9.95 11.33 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 5.04 5.74 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 904 1030 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0144 0.0164 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 55.1 62.75 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0005 0.0006 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.21 2.52 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.29 4.89 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 310 353 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0045 0.0052 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 19.06 21.71 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0003 0.0004 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.96 3.38 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.29 4.89 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 350 398 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0046 0.0053 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 19.39 22.08 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0003 0.0004 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML