Oats, flaked

Flaked or rolled oat grain (Avena sativa L.).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.6 100 % - 1.4 81.9 -93.1 851 2.3
Crude protein 9.4 10.8 % - 1.1 6.5 -13.4 988 1.3 7.7 -15.4 858
Crude fibre 11.5 13.1 % - 1.7 5.1 -17.3 896 1.9 5.9 -20.2 772
Crude fat 4.7 5.4 % - 0.8 2.5 -7 253 0.9 2.8 -7.8 230
Ash 2.5 2.9 % - 0.3 1.9 -3.8 186 0.4 2.2 -4.3 166
Insoluble ash 1 1.2 % - 0.5 0.3 -1.8 16 0.5 0.4 -2 16
NDF 31.3 35.7 % - 4.5 22.5 -42.8 193 5.1 23.6 -48.6 221
ADF 14.3 16.3 % - 2.7 8.7 -29.7 199 3 10 -32.2 226
Lignin 2.3 2.6 % - 0.8 0.8 -4.3 208 1 0.9 -5.5 227
Water insoluble cell walls 31.3 35.7 % - 3.4 21.4 -38.4 74 3.8 28 -44 62
Starch 36.8 42.1 % - 4.1 26.5 -52.4 474 4.7 30 -60.4 400
Starch, enzymatic method 34.9 39.9 % - 4.5 30.2 -48.8 26 5.1 33.7 -56.4 30
Total sugars 1.3 1.5 % - 0.4 0.1 -2.3 100 0.5 0.1 -2.7 101
Gross energy (kcal) 4070 4650 kcal/kg - 90 3840 -4220 50 60 4420 -4760 90
Gross energy (MJ) 17 19.5 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.1 -17.7 50 0.3 18.5 -19.9 90
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.3 0.4 -2 264 0.4 0.5 -2.3 263
Phosphorus 3.1 3.6 g/kg - 0.4 2 -4.5 315 0.4 2.3 -4.9 311
Phytate phosphorus 1.7 2 g/kg 55 % P 0.3 1.4 -2.6 25 0.4 1.6 -3 25 9 37-76 25
Magnesium 0.9 1.1 g/kg - 0.1 0.7 -1.2 31 0.1 0.8 -1.3 31
Potassium 4.5 5.1 g/kg - 0.9 2.7 -5.9 34 1 3 -7 34
Sodium 0.12 0.13 g/kg - 0.08 0 -0.38 33 0.09 0 -0.42 33
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 0.2 0.4 -1.3 9 0.3 0.5 -1.5 8
Sulfur 1.6 1.8 g/kg - 0.2 1.3 -1.7 6 0.2 1.5 -2 6
Dietary cation-anion difference -0.9 -1 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 99 112 mEq/kg -
Manganese 41 47 mg/kg - 17 19 -83 25 19 22 -98 27
Zinc 24 27 mg/kg - 4 16 -34 28 5 18 -37 29
Copper 3 4 mg/kg - 1 0.8 -8 28 1 1 -9 28
Iron 96 109 mg/kg - 49 38 -172 11 56 45 -198 11
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.08 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.8 0.9 mg/kg - 1 1
Iodine 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA 0.2-0.7 3
C16:0 palmitic acid 7 8 g/kg 16.5 % FA 2.1 5.6 -10.8 7 2.4 6.5 -12.2 7 1.3 14.9-18.9 8
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.1-0.3 3
C18:0 stearic acid 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.2 % FA 0.3 0.3 -1.2 7 0.4 0.3 -1.4 7 0.3 0.7-1.8 8
C18:1 oleic acid 16.4 18.7 g/kg 38.6 % FA 6.2 12.7 -27.8 7 7.1 14.8 -31.4 7 2.9 35-43.4 8
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.4 19.9 g/kg 40.9 % FA 3.9 13 -24.8 7 4.5 15.1 -28 7 4.2 36.2-47 8
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 1.6 % FA 0.2 0.3 -1.1 7 0.3 0.4 -1.2 7 0.3 1-1.9 8
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.09-0.1 2
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.8-0.8 2
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.06 % FA 0.04-0.07 2
C22:1 erucic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.07 % FA 0.05-0.08 2
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2-0.3 2
Fatty acids 4.3 4.9 % 90 % fat 4 86-95 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 11.9 13.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 5.8 6.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.6 1.8 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4.6 5.2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 16.8 19.2 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 8.3 9.5 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Choline 975 1113 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 4.2 mL/g
Phytase activity 40 40 IU/kg - 10 -100 2 20 -120 3
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.87 1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.83 0.95 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 21 24 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 68 77 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -14 -16 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.281 0.32 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2400 2740 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1540 1750 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1470 1670 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.1 11.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.4 7.3 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.1 7 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 71.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 69.3 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 88 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 71 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.7 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.3 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.89 1.02 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.86 0.98 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 19 22 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 67 76 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -13 -15 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.83 0.95 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.78 0.89 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 25 29 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 70 80 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -16 -18 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.85 0.97 per kg - 0.07 0.73 -0.96 21 0.08 0.86 -1.1 21
UFL INRA 2007 0.85 0.97 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.8 0.92 per kg - 0.08 0.67 -0.94 21 0.09 0.79 -1.08 21
UFV INRA 2007 0.8 0.92 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 21 23 g/kg - 2 2 19 -25 6
PDIN INRA 2007 62 71 g/kg - 7 8 60 -83 6
PDIE INRA 2007 69 79 g/kg - 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2380 2720 kcal/kg - 200 1910 -2800 37 220 2310 -3250 37
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10 11.4 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10 11.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 72.6 % 5.5 68-82 5
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 70.7 % 5.4 59.7-82.2 38
N digestibility ruminants - 59.3 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 92 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 79 % 5 77-92 9
Immediately degradable N (a) - 51 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 38 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.16 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 93 % 1
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 67 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 33 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.215 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 75 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 60 % 44-65 2
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 25 % 17-51 4
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.085 h-1 0.016-0.1 4
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 74.9 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.4 2.7 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.5 0.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 851 972 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 880 1004 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 52 60 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -7 -8 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.6 4.1 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.3 1.5 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 69.7 79.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.05 3.48 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.56 1.78 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.47 1.68 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.67 1.91 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.11 1.27 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 20 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 23 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6 6.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 125 143 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -5 -6 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2710 3100 kcal/kg - 140 2530 -2830 5 160 2860 -3310 8
ME growing pig (kcal) 2610 2980 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1990 2270 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2860 3270 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2730 3120 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2060 2350 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.3 13 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.9 12.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.4 13 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.6 9.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66.6 % 3.5 61-70 8
Energy digestibility adult pig - 70.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 70.1 % 67.4-71 2
OM digestibility adult pig - 73.6 %
N digestibility growing pig - 75 % 72.9-78.9 4
N digestibility adult pig - 84.7 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 76 % 4.8 67-81.2 10
Crude fat digestibility pig - 80 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1 1.1 g/kg 32 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.5 1.7 g/kg 48 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2360 2700 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2240 2550 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.9 11.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.4 10.7 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.7 0.8 g/kg 21 % P
Available P broiler 0.8 0.9 g/kg 24 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 68.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.88 1 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 70 80 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2730 3110 kcal/kg - 2580 -2910 2 2890 -3310 4
ME rabbit (kcal) 2640 3020 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.4 13 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.1 12.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 67 % 64.4-69.6 3
N digestibility rabbit - 66.1 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2140 2440 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9 10.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 52.6 %
N digestibility salmonids - 80.1 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 4 4.5 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.7 3 -5.9 64 0.8 3.4 -6.6 65 0.3 3.6-5.1 68
Threonine 3.3 3.8 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.6 2.5 -4.7 35 0.7 2.8 -5.9 37 0.3 3-4.1 40
Methionine 1.7 1.9 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 0.3 1 -2.5 34 0.4 1.2 -2.7 36 0.2 1.3-2.2 39
Cystine 3.1 3.6 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.4 2.3 -3.9 29 0.5 2.5 -4.7 28 0.3 2.3-3.4 33
Methionine + cystine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 0.7 3.5 -6.1 29 0.8 4 -7.3 28 0.4 3.9-5.3 33
Tryptophan 1.2 1.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.2 1 -1.9 22 0.3 1.2 -2.1 21 0.1 1.1-1.5 26
Isoleucine 3.6 4.1 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 0.7 2.9 -5.5 34 0.8 3 -6.2 37 0.3 3.1-4.5 40
Valine 5 5.7 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 1.1 3.9 -7.3 34 1.2 4.5 -10 36 0.5 4.3-6.2 39
Leucine 6.9 7.9 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 1.2 5.6 -9.9 33 1.4 5.9 -12.2 36 0.5 6.4-8.4 39
Phenylalanine 4.7 5.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.9 3.8 -6.7 32 1 4 -8.6 35 0.4 4.4-5.8 38
Tyrosine 3.4 3.8 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.7 2.4 -4.1 15 0.7 2.7 -5.1 16 0.5 2.3-4.1 20
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.1 9.2 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 1.6 6.7 -10.2 12 1.8 7.1 -12.6 13 0.7 7.6-9.9 17
Histidine 2 2.3 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.4 1.8 -3.3 29 0.5 1.8 -3.8 31 0.3 2-3.1 34
Arginine 6.3 7.2 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1.3 5.2 -9.9 33 1.5 5.7 -10.7 35 0.6 5.8-8.3 38
Alanine 4.5 5.1 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.7 3.7 -6.3 32 0.8 4.1 -7.1 35 0.4 4.4-5.8 37
Aspartic acid 8.1 9.3 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 1.7 6.5 -11 30 1.9 6.5 -15.2 32 0.5 7.4-10.1 34
Glutamic acid 16.1 18.4 g/kg 17.1 g/16g N 3.8 14.4 -26.9 31 4.3 15.8 -33 34
Glycine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 5.1 g/16g N 0.8 4.1 -7.4 33 0.9 4.5 -8.3 34 0.4 4.2-5.7 39
Serine 4.6 5.3 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 0.8 3.7 -7 33 0.9 3.8 -7.8 36 0.4 4.3-5.9 38
Proline 5.8 6.6 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1.1 3.8 -6.4 16 1.3 4.3 -8.8 19 0.8 4.4-6.7 21
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 73 % 1 1 6 60-82 10
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 69 % 1 1 6 57-75 10
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 84 % 1 1 2 80-87 10
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 75 % 1 1 3 68-80 10
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.3 g/kg 78 % 1 1 2 74-82 10
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.9 1.1 g/kg 78 % 5 71-84 8
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.2 g/kg 79 % 1 1 5 71-84 10
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.4 g/kg 77 % 1 1 6 66-85 10
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 81 % 1 1 5 73-88 10
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 83 % 1 1 5 75-90 10
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3.1 g/kg 79 % 1 1 7 68-89 10
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.6 7.5 g/kg 82 % 1 1 5 73-90 10
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 83 % 1 1 5 74-89 10
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 88 % 1 1 4 81-93 10
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.5 g/kg 69 % 1 1 6 58-76 10
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 6.2 7.1 g/kg 76 % 1 1 5 66-82 10
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 13.9 15.8 g/kg 86 % 1 1 4 79-90 10
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 69 % 1 1 7 56-78 10
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 74 % 1 1 4 67-80 10
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.8 g/kg 72 % 1 1 66-78 2
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.8 g/kg 84 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 74 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 86 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 67 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 74 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.9 1 g/kg 73 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 82 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 84 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 87 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.7 3.1 g/kg 80 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.7 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 83 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 84 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 79 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.1 g/kg 76 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 13.2 15 g/kg 82 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 76 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 76 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.9 g/kg 73 %
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