Millet, proso

Grain of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.). Other names: common millet, broomtail millet, hog millet, white millet, broomcorn millet.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.6 100 % - 0.7 88 -91.5 17 1.1
Crude protein 12.9 14.2 % - 1.6 9.3 -15.6 17 1.8 10.6 -17.2 48
Crude fibre 6.7 7.4 % - 1.6 4.4 -9.7 10 1.7 4.6 -10.7 33
Crude fat 5.1 5.6 % - 2.3 4 -10.1 17 2.5 3.4 -11.1 40
Ash 3.6 4 % - 1.2 2.5 -8.1 17 1.3 2.8 -8.9 40
Insoluble ash 0.5 0.6 % -
NDF 21.1 23.2 % -
ADF 10.9 12 % - 1.3 9.3 -12.6 7 1.5 10.3 -13.9 7
Lignin 2.1 2.3 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 29.1 32.2 % -
Starch 58.2 64.2 % - 1.9 2 60.2 -67.2 16
Starch, enzymatic method 55.9 61.7 % -
Total sugars 1.7 1.9 % - 1
Gross energy (kcal) 4180 4610 kcal/kg - 40 4100 -4190 7 30 4520 -4620 7
Gross energy (MJ) 17.5 19.3 MJ/kg - 0.2 17.2 -17.5 7 0.1 18.9 -19.3 7
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.4 0.4 g/kg - 0.5 0.1 -1.5 8 0.5 0.2 -1.7 9
Phosphorus 2.7 3 g/kg - 0.2 2.5 -3 8 0.2 2.6 -3.3 10
Phytate phosphorus 1.8 1.9 g/kg 65 % P 1
Magnesium 1.2 1.3 g/kg -
Potassium 3.7 4.1 g/kg -
Sodium 0.08 0.09 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.04 0.05 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.1 1.2 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 30 34 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 98 109 mEq/kg -
Manganese 12 13 mg/kg -
Zinc 29 32 mg/kg -
Copper 6 7 mg/kg -
Iron 53 58 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.05 0.05 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.8 4.2 g/kg 8.3 % FA 1.2 7.2-10 5
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.06 0.1-0.3 5
C18:0 stearic acid 0.9 1 g/kg 2 % FA 0.8 1.5-3.4 5
C18:1 oleic acid 9.6 10.5 g/kg 20.8 % FA 2.5 18.1-24.2 5
C18:2 linoleic acid 30.2 33.4 g/kg 65.8 % FA 3 62.2-69.5 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.8 0.9 g/kg 1.7 % FA 0.3 1.3-2.2 5
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.1 0.09-0.4 5
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 4.6 5.1 % 90 % fat 4 86-95 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.2 1.32 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.23 1.36 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 24 26 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 78 86 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 1 2 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.281 0.31 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3110 3440 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2110 2330 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2170 2390 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.8 13 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.8 8.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.7 8.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 89.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.1 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 77 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 88 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 59 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.3 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.6 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 9.7 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.5 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.22 1.35 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.26 1.39 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 21 23 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 76 84 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 2 2 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.16 1.28 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.18 1.3 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 28 31 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 81 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -2 -2 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.16 1.28 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.03 1.13 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.17 1.29 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.01 1.11 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 21 23 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 80 88 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 84 93 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3060 3370 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.6 12.9 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12.8 14.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 90.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 75.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 79 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 81 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 63 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 29 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.1 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 93 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 67 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 33 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.215 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 62 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 50 % 44-65 2
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 26 % 17-51 4
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.05 h-1 0.02-0.07 2
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 75.1 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2 2.2 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 9.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.5 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1155 1274 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1278 1410 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 78 86 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 1 1 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.9 5.4 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 2.1 2.3 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 75.1 82.9 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.33 3.67 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.73 1.91 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.63 1.8 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.85 2.04 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.25 1.38 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 18 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 20 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 8.2 9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 161 178 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -5 -6 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3230 3570 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3140 3460 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2480 2730 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3360 3700 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3250 3590 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2540 2800 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 13.5 14.9 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.1 14.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 10.4 11.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14 15.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.6 15 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.6 11.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 77.4 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 80.4 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 80.3 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 83.1 %
N digestibility growing pig - 78.6 %
N digestibility adult pig - 84.4 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 61.3 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.8 0.9 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.2 1.3 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3390 3740 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3310 3650 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 14.2 15.7 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 13.8 15.3 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.7 0.7 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.7 0.7 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 80.7 %
Energy digestibility horse - 77.7 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.06 1.17 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 91 100 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3000 3310 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2880 3180 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.6 13.9 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.1 13.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 71.8 %
N digestibility rabbit - 69.5 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2270 2510 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.5 10.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 54.5 %
N digestibility salmonids - 82.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.9 3.2 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.5 2.2 -3.5 11 0.6 1.3-2.9 12
Threonine 4.9 5.4 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N
Methionine 4.5 5 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.07
Cystine 3 3.3 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 7.4 8.2 g/kg 5.8 g/16g N
Tryptophan 2.3 2.6 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 2.3 -2.7 3 2.5 -3 3 1.4-1.9 4
Isoleucine 5.8 6.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.9 4.2 -7.1 11 0.5 3.2-4.8 12
Valine 7 7.7 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 1 6.7 -7.6 3 1.1 4.7 -8.4 11 0.6 3.6-5.6 12
Leucine 17.2 19 g/kg 13.4 g/16g N 3.6 12.5 -22 11
Phenylalanine 6.3 7 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1.3 5.6 -9.1 11 0.4 4.3-5.6 12
Tyrosine 4 4.4 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.9 3.3 -6.3 11 0.8 2.3-4.8 11
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.3 11.4 g/kg 8 g/16g N 1.7 9.1 -13.3 11 0.8 7-10 11
Histidine 2.8 3.1 g/kg 2.2 g/16g N 0.5 2.3 -3.9 11 0.4 1.8-3 12
Arginine 4.8 5.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N
Alanine 12.7 14 g/kg 9.8 g/16g N 3.5 9.7 -19 11 1.5 7.4-11.4 11
Aspartic acid 10.2 11.3 g/kg 8 g/16g N 1.1 8.8 -12 11 1.5 5.7-9.7 11
Glutamic acid 27.5 30.3 g/kg 21.4 g/16g N 4.2 21.9 -35 11
Glycine 3.6 4 g/kg 2.8 g/16g N 0.5 3.3 -4.7 11 0.7 2.1-3.9 11
Serine 6.1 6.7 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 2.1 4.4 -10 11 1 3.5-6 11
Proline 7.6 8.4 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 2.2 2.5 g/kg 77 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.1 g/kg 76 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.1 g/kg 84 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.2 2.4 g/kg 75 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6 6.6 g/kg 80 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 77 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.1 g/kg 81 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.1 g/kg 79 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 14.2 15.7 g/kg 83 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 5.8 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.6 g/kg 82 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.4 g/kg 83 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 82 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.7 g/kg 88 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 9.9 10.9 g/kg 78 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 9 g/kg 80 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 23.6 26 g/kg 86 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 75 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.4 g/kg 80 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 6.7 g/kg 80 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 87 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.3 g/kg 79 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.1 g/kg 83 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.2 2.4 g/kg 73 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.5 g/kg 79 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.2 g/kg 86 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.3 g/kg 83 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.2 g/kg 81 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 14.1 15.6 g/kg 82 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.5 g/kg 79 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.8 g/kg 86 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.4 9.3 g/kg 82 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.5 g/kg 80 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.7 g/kg 89 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.3 11.3 g/kg 81 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.4 9.2 g/kg 82 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 22.5 24.9 g/kg 82 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.2 g/kg 80 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.5 g/kg 81 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.4 g/kg 76 %
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