Cowpea seed

Seed of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Cowpea is a grain legume popular as human food in Africa and in some regions of Asia and the Americas. Other names: black-eyed pea, black-eyed bean, asparagus bean.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89.7 100 % - 3 80.7 -97.3 43 4.8
Crude protein 22.4 25 % - 1.7 19.1 -25.1 37 1.7 20.9 -27.5 48
Crude fibre 4.2 4.7 % - 1.2 1.2 -5.6 21 1.3 1.3 -6.6 24
Crude fat 1.4 1.5 % - 0.4 0.6 -2.9 45 0.5 0.7 -2.6 47
Ash 3.9 4.3 % - 0.9 2.9 -6.9 42 0.9 3.1 -7.4 52
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.1 % - 0.06 0.02 -0.2 11 0.07 0.02 -0.3 14
NDF 12.9 14.4 % - 3.3 8.7 -19.3 9 3.6 9.7 -21.2 8
ADF 5.6 6.2 % - 1.2 3.6 -6.9 9 1.3 4 -8 9
Lignin 0.4 0.5 % - 0.1 0.3 -0.6 7 0.1 0.3 -0.7 7
Water insoluble cell walls 12.2 13.5 % -
Starch 42.2 47 % - 5.5 36.4 -49.6 8 6 40.7 -55.5 8
Starch, enzymatic method 39.7 44.2 % - 1 1
Total sugars 4.2 4.6 % - 0.3 -6.3 4 0.4 -7.1 4
Gross energy (kcal) 3910 4350 kcal/kg - 270 3720 -4120 9 270 4140 -4970 12
Gross energy (MJ) 16.3 18.2 MJ/kg - 1.1 15.6 -17.2 9 1.1 17.3 -20.8 12
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.7 0.3 -2.5 27 0.8 0.3 -4 32
Phosphorus 3.3 3.7 g/kg - 1.3 0.2 -4.9 30 1.5 0.2 -5.4 37
Phytate phosphorus 2.4 2.7 g/kg 72 % P 0.03 -2.8 2 1
Magnesium 2.1 2.3 g/kg - 0.4 1.5 -3.3 19 0.5 1.6 -3.6 20
Potassium 13.4 15 g/kg - 2.2 11.1 -19.7 18 2.4 12.8 -21.5 18
Sodium 0.11 0.12 g/kg - 0.07 -0.18 3 0.08 -0.19 3
Sulfur 2.7 3 g/kg -
Manganese 18 20 mg/kg - 13 -28 4 14 -32 4
Zinc 34 38 mg/kg - 8 23 -40 4 9 24 -46 5
Copper 8 9 mg/kg - 4 5 -11 4 4 6 -14 5
Iron 379 422 mg/kg - 96 -1356 4
Selenium 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.3 0.4 mg/kg - 0.01 -1 3 0.01 -1 3
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.05 % FA 0.06 0-0.2 10
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.4 % FA 1 0.5 0.2-2 11
C16:0 palmitic acid 2.7 3 g/kg 23.9 % FA 1 4.3 14.6-30.6 12
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.2 0-0.6 10
C18:0 stearic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 6.2 % FA 1 2.2 4-12.4 12
C18:1 oleic acid 1.1 1.2 g/kg 9.8 % FA 1 5 3.3-19.2 12
C18:2 linoleic acid 3.4 3.8 g/kg 30.2 % FA 1 4.8 20.7-35.9 12
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.1 2.4 g/kg 18.9 % FA 1 4.4 9.1-23.3 12
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 2.1 % FA 0.4 1.2-2.6 10
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.7 % FA 1 2.4 0-7.9 11
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 5.7 % FA 2.2 3.4-10 10
C22:1 erucic acid 0.01 0.01 g/kg 0.05 % FA 0.1 0-0.4 10
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0.07 0.08 g/kg 0.6 % FA 1 0-2.3 10
Fatty acids 1.1 1.3 % 82 % fat 4 78-89 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.5 0.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 4 4.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.05 0.06 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 8.4 9.3 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.8 2 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4.3 4.7 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 95.5 106 mg/kg - 25.4 -174 2 29.3 -184 2
Pantothenic acid 14.1 15.7 mg/kg - 1 1
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 15.3 17 mg/kg - 1
Choline 965 1076 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.05 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.06 1.18 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 38 42 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 90 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 88 98 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.25 0.279 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2760 3070 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1840 2050 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1860 2070 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 12.1 13.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.2 9.2 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8.4 9.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 85.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 81 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 81 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 65 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8.5 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.4 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.5 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.06 1.19 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.08 1.2 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 32 36 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 86 96 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 92 102 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.01 1.13 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.01 1.13 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 47 52 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 97 108 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 81 90 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.02 1.14 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.08 1.21 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.09 1.22 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.02 1.13 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 31 35 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 140 156 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 84 94 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2730 3040 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.4 12.7 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12 13.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 76.8 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 88 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 86 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 67 % 22 12-72 5
Potentially degradable N (b) - 29 % 28 11-84 5
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.115 h-1 0.048 0.05-0.18 5
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 79 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 63 % 1
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 19 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 77 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.081 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 62.5 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.4 2.7 g/kg 73 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.6 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1019 1135 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1112 1240 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 83 93 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 95 106 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5 5.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.6 1.8 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 75.5 84.2 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.48 3.88 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.81 2.02 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.71 1.91 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.95 2.18 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.34 1.5 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 13 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 15 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.2 8 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 158 176 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 11 12 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3410 3800 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 3240 3610 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2360 2630 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3540 3950 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3340 3720 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2430 2710 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.3 15.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.5 15.1 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.9 11 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.8 16.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14 15.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.2 11.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 87.4 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 90.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 89.3 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 92.4 %
N digestibility growing pig - 91.5 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 95 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 17.2 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1 1.1 g/kg 30 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.5 1.7 g/kg 45 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2790 3110 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2780 3090 kcal/kg - 2860 -3370 3
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.7 13 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.6 12.9 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.8 0.9 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.8 0.9 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 84.9 %
Energy digestibility horse - 81.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.96 1.07 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 175 195 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3160 3520 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2930 3270 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.2 14.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.3 13.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 81 %
N digestibility rabbit - 82.8 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2290 2550 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.6 10.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 58.7 %
N digestibility salmonids - 85.4 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 14.6 16.3 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1.7 10.9 -15.1 11 1.8 11.5 -18 11 0.5 5.2-7.1 14
Threonine 8.6 9.5 g/kg 3.8 g/16g N 1.1 6.1 -8.6 6 1.2 6.5 -10 7 0.6 3-5.3 9
Methionine 3.3 3.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 2.4 -3.7 9 0.5 2.5 -4.1 9 0.1 1.2-1.6 11
Cystine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 0.3 1.9 -2.8 8 0.3 2.1 -3.1 8 0.1 0.8-1.4 10
Methionine + cystine 5.8 6.4 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 4.9 -6 8 0.4 5.5 -7 8 0.2 2.2-2.8 10
Tryptophan 2.5 2.8 g/kg 1.1 g/16g N 1 1 0.9-1.3 2
Isoleucine 8.9 10 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.1 7.3 -9 6 1.2 8 -12 7 0.7 2.8-5.2 8
Valine 10.5 11.7 g/kg 4.7 g/16g N 1.1 9.7 -13 7 0.6 3.4-5.5 9
Leucine 16.7 18.6 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 2.7 11.7 -20 7 1.6 5.8-11.3 9
Phenylalanine 12.3 13.7 g/kg 5.5 g/16g N 1.2 10.5 -14 7 0.6 4.4-6.4 9
Tyrosine 6.8 7.5 g/kg 3 g/16g N 1 5.5 -7.3 5 1.1 5.8 -9 6 0.3 2.6-3.6 8
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 19 21.2 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N 2.2 15.4 -19.5 5 2.3 16.3 -23 6 0.4 8-9.1 8
Histidine 7.4 8.2 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 1.1 6.2 -9.2 6 1.2 6.8 -10.3 7 0.9 2.4-5.1 9
Arginine 15.1 16.8 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 3.7 9.1 -18.6 6 4.1 9.7 -22 7 1.3 5-8.7 9
Alanine 9.3 10.4 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.7 8.7 -9.5 6 0.7 9.3 -11 7 0.5 3.4-5.1 7
Aspartic acid 23.4 26.1 g/kg 10.4 g/16g N 4.3 16.4 -27 6 4.7 17.3 -31.2 7 1.4 9.2-12.7 7
Glutamic acid 35.4 39.5 g/kg 15.8 g/16g N 6.1 24.4 -37.5 6 6.7 25.8 -47 7 1.8 14.1-18.7 7
Glycine 8.8 9.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.5 5.7 -9.4 6 1.7 6 -11 7 0.5 3.1-4.8 9
Serine 10.9 12.2 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 2.1 6.5 -11.6 6 2.3 6.9 -14 7 0.6 3.8-5.6 7
Proline 10.2 11.4 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.6 8.6 -12.4 5 1.7 9.6 -13.6 6 0.8 3.8-5.7 6
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 12 13.4 g/kg 82 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 6.9 7.7 g/kg 81 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2.8 3.2 g/kg 86 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 80 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.3 g/kg 84 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 82 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.5 8.4 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.7 g/kg 83 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 14.3 16 g/kg 86 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 10.6 11.8 g/kg 86 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 5.8 6.4 g/kg 85 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 15.7 17.5 g/kg 86 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7 g/kg 85 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 13.5 15.1 g/kg 90 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.5 g/kg 82 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 19.4 21.6 g/kg 83 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 31.3 34.9 g/kg 88 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8 g/kg 81 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 9.1 10.2 g/kg 84 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.6 g/kg 84 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.9 13.3 g/kg 82 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.7 7.4 g/kg 78 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.1 g/kg 85 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.8 2.1 g/kg 74 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.1 g/kg 80 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 81 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.2 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.5 9.5 g/kg 82 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 13.9 15.5 g/kg 83 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.3 11.5 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.2 g/kg 82 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 15.2 17 g/kg 83 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 6 6.7 g/kg 81 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.7 14.2 g/kg 85 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.5 g/kg 82 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 18.2 20.3 g/kg 78 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 30.3 33.8 g/kg 86 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.9 7.7 g/kg 79 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.7 g/kg 80 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9.3 g/kg 82 %
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